Healthcare delivery is profoundly affected by race/ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic status. The effect of these factors on patient health and the quality of care received is being studied in more detail. Orthopaedic surgery over the past several years has paid increasing attention to these disparities as well. Not only do these disparities exist with regard to accessing care but also with regard to the quality of care received and postoperative outcomes. Total joint arthroplasty, hip fractures, and spine surgery represent areas where the effect of these factors has been reported. Not only is it essential for the clinician to understand the extent of care disparities but also the manner in which these disparities affect patient health and outcomes within the orthopaedic surgery setting. Strategies should be devised to minimize the effect of these factors on clinical care and patient health.